Napi api: Batch API

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Napi api: Batch API

Well, talán harmadjára futok össze a batch apival, és még mindig nem volt zökkenőmentes a barátság, szóval amíg az a betyár sok elem leszalad, amin dolgoztam, levésem gyorsan a tudnivalókat, hogy legközelebb már ne kelljen megint mindenre rájönni.

No akkor batch api:

A batch kötegelt feldolgozást jelent. Drupalon belül úgy is mondhatjuk, hogyha egyszerre annyi adattal kell dolgozni, ami túlnő egy oldalletöltés korlátjain, akkor kell a batch apihoz nyúlni. A képet megnézve valószínű egyébként, hogy egyből leesik, a Drupal melyik részéről is van szó.

Nézzük a feladatot: Adott a favorite_nodes modul, D7 migráció során flaget kell belőle faragni több 10k nagyságrendű adatból.

A batch api maga két fő részből áll. Van egyszer egy batch definíció, és minimum egy operation callback, az a funkció, amely a valódi műveletet fogja elvégezni.

Így néz ki nagyjából egy batch definíció:

[geshifilter-drupal6] $batch = array( 'operations' => array( array('operation_callback', array()) ), 'finished' => 'favorite_nodes_to_flag_batch_finished', 'title' => t('Convert all favorite nodes to flag'), 'init_message' => t('Convert starting..'), 'progress_message' => t('Processed @current out of @total.'), 'error_message' => t('Hmm.. Something could be wrong, sorry, post an issue to module..'), );[/geshifilter-drupal6]

Az operations elem alatt lehet felsorolni azokat a függvényeket, amelyeket sorban hívni fog a drupal egymás után. Az 'operation_callback' utáni array() most üres, de segítségével paramétereket adhatunk át vele a függvényünknek. Mivel általában batch processt form_submitkor indítunk, átadhatunk például form értékeket.

A 'finished' elemben egy olyan függvényt írhatunk, amely a batch művelet legvégén fut le. Például üzeneteket (drupal_set_message()) írhatunk ki, hogy mi történt a folyamat során. Figyi, ez nem array, ebből csak egy van!

Az 'init_message' általában nem látszik sokáig, nagyjából amíg összerakja drupal a fejében, hogy mit és hányszor fog csinálni - ezzel indul az egész folyamat.

Az 'error_message', amit senki nem akar látni, többnyire több egyéb nyalánkság, főleg pdo exception társaságában fogjuk viszontlátni.

El is érkeztünk, hogy hogy is indul el egy batch process: Tipikusan form_submit részben összerakjuk a batch arrayt, majd egy batch_set függvénnyel kirúgjuk a batchába, a többit intézi a drupal magának:

[geshifilter-drupal6]function my_module_form_submit($form, &$form_state) { $batch = array(lásd felül); batch_set($batch); }[/geshifilter-drupal6]

Ezzel elkezdődik az operation része a batchnek. Ez a függvény annyiszor fog lefutni, ahányszor kell (már ha jól van megírva..)
Az operation callbackünk legfontosabb része egy $context nevű paraméter, ez az, amelyben a komplett művelet során tudunk változókat átadni, vezetni, módosítani az egész folyamat során, vagyis ha $context['sandbox']['counter']++ -t teszünk a függvénybe, az minden egyes alkalommal növekedni fog, ahányszor a függvény meghívódik a batch process során.

Ennek a $context paraméternek a következő részeit állítgathatjuk:

$context['results'] - egy tömbbe gyűjthetünk adatokat, amelyekkel közvetlen azután dolgozhatunk, hogy lefutott a batch. Ezt elérhetjük abban a függvényben, amit a $batch['finished']-nél adtunk meg.

$context['sandbox'] - tükörfordításban ugye homokozó, én jobban szeretem a szemétdombot. Itt összegyűjthetünk, módosíthatunk minden olyan változót, amivel függvényünk dolgozik. Például ahogy fentebb is volt már, hogy hányszor futott a process.

$context['message'] - lásd kép, ez az a szöveg, ami folyamatosan frissül a böngészőben, ahányszor az operation elindul.

$context['finished'] - Hogy hány %-nál jár a művelet. Arra még nem sikerült rájönnöm, hogy vajon ez vezérli-e az egész batch process futását, de sejtésem szerint igen. Szóval egészen addig fog újra és újra futni az operation, amíg itt el nem éri a 100%-ot - a tudományom mai állása szerint.

Nézzünk egy ilyen függvényt, és magyarázzunk:

[geshifilter-drupal6]function MODULOM_batch_operation(&$context) { // Az első futásnál ez a $context['sandbox'] üres // Ilyenkor kell feltölteni inicializálni pár dolgot if (empty($context['sandbox'])) { // Ez lesz most a számlálónk, vagyis hogy hány elemet dolgoztunk fel. $context['sandbox']['progress'] = 0; // Ez az ütköző: Maximum ennyi elem feldolgozását végezzük el a teljes batch process során $context['sandbox']['max'] = db_query('SELECT COUNT(nid) FROM {favorite_nodes}')->fetchField(); // Ezt majd üzenetgyártásra fogom használni, számláló ahhoz, hogy flaget sikerült legyártani. $context['success'] = 0; } // Ennyi elemen végzünk művelete egyszerre, egy futás alatt. $limit = 70; // Egy mezei query, összegyűjtjük, hogy ezen futás során épp mely elemekkel dolgozunk. // Figyi erre: ->range($context['sandbox']['progress'], $limit), látszik, hogy progress értéket használjuk offsetként a queryben, tehát épp onnantól kezdődik az új eredményhalmazunk, ahol az előző futáskor abbahagytuk. $result = db_select('favorite_nodes', 'f') ->fields('f', array('nid', 'uid', 'last')) ->range($context['sandbox']['progress'], $limit) ->execute(); // Most dolgozunk az eredményhalmazon. foreach ($result as $row) { // Először növeljük a progresst. $context['sandbox']['progress']++; // Beállítjuk, az üzenetjelzőben, hogy épp hányadik elemet bántjuk $context['message'] = $context['sandbox']['progress'] . ' item processed.'; // Ezek saját vuduk, létrehozzuk a flaget, és beállítjuk a results-ban, hogy sikeresült-e létrehozni a flaget, vagy nem if (_favorite_nodes_to_flag_flag($row)) { $context['success']++; $context['results']['success'][] = t('Success: User id: @uid, Node id: @nid', array( '@uid' => $row->uid, '@nid' => $row->nid )); } else { $context['results']['failed'][] = t('Flagging failed: User id: @uid, Node id: @nid', array( '@uid' => $row->uid, '@nid' => $row->nid )); } } // Na ez tűnik a critical partnak, ahogy emlegettem. Ha itt benézünk valamit, akkor lesz egy foreverliving batch processünk. Szóval figyeljünk, hogy hogyan állítjuk be az ütközőt. if ($context['sandbox']['progress'] != $context['sandbox']['max']) { $context['finished'] = $context['sandbox']['progress'] / $context['sandbox']['max']; } } [/geshifilter-drupal6]
Érdemes batch gyártásnál először a keretet elkészíteni, esetleg egy hülyebiztos lekérdezéssel húzni az időd műveletenként, hogy pontosan úgy fut-e, azon az elemeken, amikkel nekünk kell. Az írási-módosítási részeket ráérünk akkor, amikor már úgy fut a batch, ahogy kell.

Ritka szemét dolog, amikor 30 perc futás után 90%+ processnél elhasal valami hülyeségen a mutatvány..

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